Poor pencil grasp

Grade three teacher here. How can I tell which muscles are weak based on a student’s pencil grasp?
By grade three I don’t have a ton of time for fine motor play but if I knew exactly what they needed, I could work it into our day.

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Hey there, welcome! Usually when kids are holding their pencils with alternate grasp patterns, there is generalized weakness and underdevelopment of the small hand muscles. One way to address weakness and to promote appropriate grasping patterns is to use small, broken crayons. Whenever it’s appropriate, fit coloring into the assignments i.e. maps and use the broken crayons (1 inch in length)